Just a month ago the leading think tank, European Council on Foreign Relations, was bemoaning the lack of cards in the bloc’s hand to play against the Turkish leader. The Europeans stand frustrated and apparently impotent in front of his expansionist power projects both at sea in the Mediterranean and conflict zones from Libya to Nagorno-Karabakh.
Why then is Mr Erdogan appearing to give ground?
His shake-up of his economic team this week was an uncharacteristic concession. Mr Erdogan engineered the exit of his son-in-law Berat Albayrak as finance and treasury minister. The Turkish President has also promised to shake up his country’s institutions and enact judicial reforms.